A 6-year-old boy with no pathological history accidentally fell from the top of an approximately 3 m climbing pole and injured his right extended elbow and wrist joint
. Due to pain and deformity in the right elbow and wrist joints
, he visited our hospital.
proximal interphalangeal joint tenderness, right knee joint swelling, and right wrist joint
Rickets was defined on clinical examination according to age with patients showing frontal bossing, widely open anterior fontanel, widening of the wrist joint
, and bowing of the legs.
On examination, with observation a very prominent dorsal wrist ganglion was present on the right wrist towards the radial side of the wrist joint
. Wrist range of motion was full in extension, radial and lateral deviation, pronation and supination.
Tasks such as opening daily commodities, food containers, and drug packaging bags are difficult for patients with motor disorders, including fracture of the wrist joint
or finger and tendon injuries; patients with diseases, including stroke, articular rheumatism, and spinal injury; or the elderly because of muscle strength loss or other reasons [1,2].
Although the patient had arthrosis of the wrist joint
with subluxation of DRUJ, the patient is doing fine with no impairment in functional daily activity and without change of occupation (Figure 3).
Bucknill, "The anatomy of the wrist joint
," Journal of Anatomy, vol.
Self-stretching by the patient himself: patient standing with the affected hand placed on a table top with his shoulder adducted, elbow extended, wrist joint
, metacarpo phalangeal joint and proximal and distal inter-phalangeal joints extended and maintaining the position by the other hand being placed on the affected hand for at least 20 to 30 seconds initially and then progressing to 2 to 3 minutes.
The introduction section was followed by the scientific part, with lectures on fractures in the wrist joint
and hand area.
The stroke leading direction, in the court coordinate system, was considered the negative X-axis, referring to the rotation axis of the trunk left-right bending, abduction-adduction of the shoulder and elbow joints, and radial-ulnar deviation of the wrist joint
at the neutral position.
The designed robotic arm is composed of three joints; shoulder mounted on a turn table, elbow and wrist joint
that is connected to a gripper part representing human hand.
Left wrist angle: the left wrist joint
is the peak, the left hand and the left elbow joint respectively forms two lines with the left wrist joint