Figure 4 shows the x-heights of the documents measured in this study.
Although they focused mainly on non-continuous texts - such as the stock exchange listings, obituaries, and cartoon captions - their maximum range of x-heights varied between 1.
There seems to be a limited range between which the x-heights of continuous texts in three different genres are set.
However, these results do not mean much if they are not related to the x-heights.
Figure 5 shows two versions of a text with identical x-heights and identical line spacing.
Each design shares characteristics conducive to easier reading, such as large x-heights
, which refers to the height of lowercase letters, and generous open counters, which concerns the openness of characters such as 'c' and 'd.
Some types are designed to have large x-heights, and their letters usually have large included spaces.
Types with large x-heights tend, as we have seen, to include white space within the characters, which may diminish the white track; types with smaller x-heights often create clearer white tracks.
Designs often varied between very small sizes, text sizes, and display sizes or titlings; x-heights in the smallest sizes might be relatively larger than in text sizes, and the body - the built-in spacing mechanism - of a titling might be relatively narrower than in the text sizes, so that displayed type did not "fall apart.
So we must interpret our rule of thumb along the following lines: If the type has a large x-height or is "big on the body" (i.
Produced with the same complement of weights as the ITC Stone Sans design, the x-heights
, proportions, and underlying character shapes of the ITC Stone Humanist family are fully compatible with the three original Stone Sans, Stone Serif(TM) and Stone Informal(TM) designs.
Subtle design enhancements have been added to font, such as open counters and higher x-heights
, to make the Albany and Thorndale characters and words much easier to read on screen.