Basically, the rise in exposure to environmental pollutants is increasing the total body burden of xenobiotics
. Many of these xenobiotics
have been shown to disrupt healthy bodily barriers, which then lead to the production of modified self and autoimmune disease.
Objective: Biotransformation of xenobiotics
is critical for their metabolism and removal from the body which is carried out by xenobiotic
The CYP2E1 is an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of xenobiotics
, including toxic and therapeutic agents, and is involved in oxidative bioactivation of hydrophobic chemicals, such as benzene and acrylamide.
Among the topics are toxicogenomics in vitro: gene expression signatures for differentiating genotoxic mechanisms, using transcriptomics to evaluate thresholds in genotoxicity dose-response, human embryonic stem cells as biological models to examine the impact of xenobiotics
on the genome and epigenome, applying transcriptomics in exposed human populations: benzene as an example, and the parallelogram approach to assess the human relevance of toxicogenomics-derived toxicity pathways in human health risk assessment.
According to the company, Dr Xu one of the pioneers in developing cultured human hepatocytes as a tool to study metabolism of xenobiotics
and induction of P450 isozymes.
All organisms are exposed unavoidably to chemicals (or xenobiotics
such as drugs, pesticides, industrial chemicals, pollutants) with increasing industrialization and changing living conditions.
CYP3A4 accounts for about 30% in the human hepatic metabolism of xenobiotics
. The defending mechanism of drug or xenobiotic
metabolizing enzymes, particularly CYP superfamily has been found to be altered by both genetic polymorphisms and the environmental factors.
Pigs are encountering a large number of xenobiotics
potentially harmful consequences, which is not only bad for animal health and pork quality but also bad for human health.
Biotransformation of drugs, xenobiotics
, and environmental pollutants leads to the overproduction of free radicals in the body leading to lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and oxidative damage.
Francesca Caloni (DIME VET, University of Milan), president of CELLTOX, presented a lecture entitled "Predictive models in veterinary toxicology: in vitro epithelial barrier." The main concept was the use of in vitro 3D epithelial barrier models as predictive tools for toxicological adverse effects of xenobiotics
and their bioavailability in animals and humans.
Pharmacokinetics, poisoning, substance abuse, and breast-feeding toxicokinetics are explained relevant to how xenobiotics
may behave differently in these conditions.