Of these 10 patients, 8 were clinically assessed at FMT-HVD and submitted samples for direct xenodiagnosis
and peripheral blood for T.
Quantitative comparison between xenodiagnosis
and haemoculture in the detection of Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi in experimental and natural chronic infections.
Monitoring of the prevalence of the infective larvae and biting rates as well as other entomological indices of the disease in the black fly vectors (a process called xenomonitoring or xenodiagnosis
) has been and continues to be an important component of control programmes.
De Jesus et al., "Comparison of two commercial vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from endemic areas: IgG, and subclasses, parasitism, and parasite transmission by xenodiagnosis
," Vaccine, vol.
Parasite persistence in treated chagasic patients revealed by xenodiagnosis
and polimerase chain reaction.
for posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome: resolving the conundrum or adding to it?
. Xenodiagnostic xenogeneic's xenograft's Xenolith?
Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in blood specimens of chronic chagasic patients by polymerase chain reaction amplification of kinetoplast minicircle DNA: comparison with serology and xenodiagnosis
. J Clin Microbiol.
The diagnosis of infection was performed by the complement fixation test, molecular methods (PCR), and, in some cases, indirect haemagglutination and xenodiagnosis
. The patients with Chagas disease were classified according to clinical and electrocardiographic (ECG) characteristics  as asymptomatic patients without cardiac symptoms (Group A: n = 30, 57% men, 43% women; age range: 33-54 years), patients with arrhythmia-related symptoms (mild heart disease or Group B: n = 30, 57% men, 43% women; age range: 54-65 years), and patients with overt congestive heart failure (severe heart disease or Group C: n = 36, 72% men, 28% women; age range: 65-86 years).
In this phase, it is possible to detect specific antibodies by different serological tests and, in many patients, the parasites can be isolated by blood culture or by xenodiagnosis
. These tests are routinely used for parasitological exams (WHO 2013).
The use of xenodiagnosis
in the chronic phase of Chagas' disease, either as a diagnostic aid or in conjunction with the administration of drugs against trypanosomes, has led to a search for hemipteran species that are highly susceptible to T.
(21.) Avila HA, Pereira JB, Thiemann O, de Paiva E, Degrave W, Morel CM and Simpson L: Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in blood specimens of chronic chagasic patients by polymerase chain reaction amplification of kinetoplast minicircle DNA: comparison with serology and xenodiagnosis
. J Clin Microbiol 31: 2421-242, 1993.