The presence of obligate xenogamy
has also been reported in other genera of the Asteraceae, for instance, Senecio (Abbott and Irwin, 1988) and Cirsium (Michaux, 1989).
bonijesu, which is also observed in other species ofthe genus (Carauta, 1978; Berg, 2001), is a floral trait that involves the temporal separation of female and male functions in inflorescences with unisexual flowers, thereby favoring xenogamy
(Lloyd & Webb, 1986; Benin & Newman, 1993).
It is a vanguard organisation type and in our case the thriving result of a xenogamy
between the subsidized free-flow-of-information mother and a market driven information-as-an-economic-good father.
geitonogamy); the close spacing of the plants are likewise allowed bees to forage on numerous individuals and facilitate crosspollination (i.e., xenogamy
: Flowers (Esmeralda: n=24; Estrela: n=54; Guarani das Missoes: n=48) were hand pollinated with pollen from another plant's flowers when the stigmas were receptive.
), potential pollinator identification, and germination and establishment requirements (Diamond et al., 2006; Lazaro and Traveset, 2006; Strong and Williamson, 2007; Tepedino et al., 2007; Tepedino et al., 2010; Watrous and Cane, 2011).
Furthermore, it is also noticeable the diversity of traits inherent in this genus, the species differing in longevity (therophytes to chamaephytes), flower colour (white, pink, yellow, orange) and size, flower biology (cleistogamy and chasmogamy) and breeding and mating systems (autogamy, xenogamy
, self-compatibility, self-incompatibility) (Arrington & Kubitziky 2003, Rodriguez-Perez 2005).
The following tests were carried out to evaluate the breeding system: 1-Manual self-pollination (autogamy); 2-Cross-pollination (xenogamy
(n=9): un-opened flowers were emasculated before the anthers reached maturity.
Treatment 2) The flower was emasculated as above, but not bagged, so that seeds that matured would be the result of either geitonogamy (in which an ovule is fertilized by pollen from a different flower on the same plant) or xenogamy
(in which the pollen is transferred from a different individual), but not intrafloral self-pollination.