These markers were attached to the xiphoid
process, sternal notch, spinous process of the seventh cervical and eighth thoracic vertebrae, left and right acromioclavicular joints, medial and lateral epicondyles of the elbow, radial and ulnar styloid processes, knuckles II and V, anterior superior iliac spine, posterior superior iliac spine, and a triad of markers on the upper arm.
An abdominal vertical incision scar that began under the xiphoid
and extended below the navel was observed.
A midline incision was made on the skin extending from jugular notch to xiphoid
in a supine position in a temperature-controlled room (21 to 24[degrees]C), the cardiac electrical signal was monitored by two electrodes positioned on the skin surface, or rather, one on the area beside the xiphoid
process and another on the anterior axillary line at the fifth intercostal space.
Majority of LC were performed by using a modified three port technique called sectorization rather than triangulation with 10 mm umbilical camera port a 5mm dissecting port 4-5 cm below xiphoid
sternum and a third 5mm port in left rather than right midclavicular line 10-15 cm away from umbilicus for holding Hartmann's pouch in most of the cases.
Each participant was given a cane that was as long as the vertical distance from the ground to 2 inches above the participant's xiphoid
process (La Grow & Weessies, 1994).
In the 2nd stage, the animals were placed in dorsal recumbency, and a skin incision of approximately 0.5cm was cut between the xiphoid
appendix and the costal arch (paraxiphoid technique; GI) or transversally to the 1st rib (cervical approach; GII;) for the introduction of the 6mm diameter cannula.
Waist circumference (WC) was measured to the nearest centimeter with a plastic tape measure while the subjects were in the standing position at the end of gentle expiration using anatomical landmarks laterally midway b/w lowest portion of the rib cage and iliac crest and anterior midway between the xiphoid
process of the sternum and the umbilicus as reference.
Following anaesthesia using chloroform (Prolabo, May, and Baker, Nigeria), the bats were sacrificed by severing the jugular vein and then placed on dorsal recumbency and a midline incision was made, extending from the xiphoid
cartilage to the pubic symphysis.
The longest sternebrae were the manubrium and xiphoid
processes with average length of 1.9 cm and 2.0 cm, respectively.
The hand strike technique for longer distances was with the palm of the hand targeting the nose, the xiphoid
process and the groin.
A predetermined length marked with adhesive tape (Xiphoid
process to ear lobules- from ear lobules to nasal tip) of stomach tube (7) (Jamjoom Medical Industries, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia) sized 18 F was passed through this oesophageally placed endotracheal tube (8).