Either a 5cm vertical midline incision was made over the xiphoid process
or in patients with reoperation the lower portion of the median sternotomy scar was reopened.
Other trocars were inserted under direct vision (10-mm-port 2 cm below the Xiphoid process
, 5-mm-trocar to the midclavicular line, and 5-mm-trocar to the anterior axillary line).
Laparoscopy was performed by a 4 trocar technique (the first trocar was introduced inferiorly to the umbilicus, the second one was introduced inferiorly to the xiphoid process
just on the left side of the upper 1/3 portion of the umbilical-xiphoid distance, the third one was introduced at the point of intersection of the umbilicus with the right anterior axillary line below the right costal arch, and the fourth one was introduced on the right midclavicular line).
Subsequently, a scalpel incision was made in the skin and musculature of the third sternebra till the xiphoid process
. The thoracic cavity was evaluated and a free D.
Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994:94) include the sternal aperture as 1 of 22 in a list of postcranial variations and define the trait as an "ossification defect producing aperture in body of the sternum." The problem with this definition is the lack of inclusion of apertures in the xiphoid process
. Barnes (2012:117) defines a sternal aperture as a bony opening that "can be an oval or elongated aperture, varying in size according to the rift between the two sternal bars.
The electrode was moistened and positioned on the sternum at the height of the xiphoid process
. Data were collected, transferred onto a microcomputer through a Polar[R] infrared interface, processed using the Polar Precision Performance[R] software (Finland), and stored on a microcomputer for analysis.
After performing hand hygiene, the US probe was positioned on the upper abdomen just below the xiphoid process
, perpendicular to the chest, in transverse orientation.
At ten days of life, clinical examination found a cutaneous nodule in the right axilla (measuring 1 cm in size), a subcutaneous nodule under the xiphoid process
(measuring 3 mm in size) and a cutaneous nodule on the left hand.
Both experimental and control sessions were performed in a pool at room temperature (29[degrees]C) with the water level at the imaginary line of the volunteer's xiphoid process
, and without the use of auxiliary aquatic material or musical stimulus.
In addition, markers were attached over xiphoid process
of the sternum, between the 2 sternoclavicular joints, inferior angle of the right scapula, 10th thoracic vertebra, and 7th cervical vertebra.
NG tube length was determined by measuring the distance starting from to the tip of the nose to the tip of the patient's ear lobe and then to the xiphoid process
and adding 10 cm to that measurement.
Finally, five additional markers were attached over the following landmarks: 7th cervical vertebra, 10th thoracic vertebra, inferior angle of the right scapula, between the two sternoclavicular joints, and xiphoid process
of the sternum bone.