vessel replacement program (ORCAs) was to provide and have proven to be an invaluable asset in meeting all of these goals", said Vice-Admiral Buck (ret'd), who was chief of the maritime staff when the ORCA program was approved.
An errant laser or even the reflection off a metallic surface can quickly blind an observer, whether [CO.sub.2] or YAG. While [CO.sub.2] can be stopped by glass (eye-glasses) or plexiglass, YAG's shorter wavelength requires an opaque barrier (usually metal, although drywall will do) and special (expensive) viewing windows.
The premium for YAG over [CO.sub.2] remains large--approximately double, although there has been some improvement in the key consumable, the flash lamps, Rofin Sinar's Walker reports.
A 400 W YAG laser in a welding mode costs about $9/hr and, in a cutting mode, $10 to $11.A 1-kW YAG laser is probably $15/hr to $16/hr running cost for welding."
A key factor is that the energy conversion factor for YAG is only 4%--you must buy 25 kW of electric power to get 1 kW in laser energy.
But there are some negatives that will slow down the spread of YAG laser use:
"With 1-kW YAG, you can weld stainless-steel pipe to depths up to 0.5".
The YAG:Ce powder with a composition corresponding to the chemical stoichiometry formula of [Y.sub.3][Al.sub.5][O.sub.12]:Ce was synthesized from the above mentioned precursor materials.
There are many methods used for the preparation of the YAG powder with a high crystallinity, a large luminous power, and a small particle size, such as methods using solid-state reaction [7-10], coprecipitation, [11-13] and sol-gel process .
In order to measure the particles size with the LB550 machine, it is necessary to dissolve the YAG:Ce powder in a solution.
With the aim of producing nano-YAG:Ce phosphor powder, a dispersion solution with uniform nanoparticles of the YAG:Ce was prepared by using a nanosteam technique (NST).
Rare earth elements such as neodymium and erbium can be doped into YAG as active laser ions, yielding YAG:Nd and YAG:Er lasers, respectively.