Traditionally known as the Yidaki
, the didgeridoo traces its origins back more than 1,500 years to the Yolngu people from the eastern Arnhem Land in northern Australia.
(1) Maori use the koauau to summon the spirits of healing; (2) Australian Aborigines, one of the earliest cultures to use sound for healing, use the yidaki
; (3) and Florence Nightingale used music in the Crimean War as part of pain management and for emotional healing.
Other common names are yidaki
and garnbak, which also mean "bamboo."
the spiritual yidaki
across the nation and the world, to come
It consists of (i) a brief unaccompanied introduction called the nurru-wana (literally 'nose-speech') in which the 'head' is softly hummed, (ii) the greater 'thigh' in which the lyrics are sung with full bilma ('paired sticks') and yidaki
('didjeridu') accompaniment, and (iii) a brief unaccompanied coda in which a small sample of key lyrics are softly recapitulated.
I settle into listening to Djiniyini, the bilma (clap-sticks) and yidaki
Accompanied by yidaki
(didgeridoo) and clap sticks, they sang powerfully.
(1) Locally in Arnhem Land, Yolngu people refer to this instrument as yidaki
. Yunupingu (1997:vii) explains that the yidaki
has a deep spiritual existence in Yolngu culture and "holds a special place in the presentation of Yolngu art, music, dance, and history.
Chapter 1, 'Ancient Voice, Contemporary Expression -- The Didjeridu (Yidaki
) and the Promotion of Aboriginal rights', is an interview with Aboriginal musician, social activist, Key Carmody, where he discusses his own use of the didjeridu in contemporary performance practices.
They are: "Under the Canvass," portraying an aboriginal painter who was kidnapped from her parents; "Yidaki
," exploring the origins of the didgeridoo; "Critical Mass," showing urban environmentalists at work; "love.dot.com," following Aussies looking for love on the Internet; "Paddling Pilgrims," giving insight into Oz's male surfing culture; and "Fanny Cracker," about a part-time drag queen in redneck rural Oz who goes on a safari.