Among his topics are the case of Jewish Arianism: the pre-existence of the zaddik
in early Hasidism, the intolerance of tolerance: mahaloket (controversy) and redemption in early Hasidism, the introvertive piety of faith in R.
However, Shalom's prophetic poetry included another layer less explored by scholarship, a mystical aspect typical to the Hasidic zaddik
(the spiritual leader of a modern Hasidic community).
Bosk, "The Routinization of Charisma: The Case of the Zaddik
," Sociological Inquiry 49, nos.
Felix Levy, book reviewer for the journal of the Reform Central Conference of American Rabbis wrote in 1961 of the ideal Hasidic leader: "The Zaddik
is the highest type of spiritual guide, deeply religious, yet in this world, with both feet, whose like we need in our own day if we are to find a way out of our perplexities, religious and moral." (34) The CCAR Journal also printed a Hasidic tale that suggested the superiority of spirituality over ritual.
Moral leadership in society: Some parallels between the Confucian "noble man" and the Jewish Zaddik
. Philosophy East & West, 45, 329-365.
If this profound sharing were to take place between zaddik
, saint, and dervish, monk, murid, and hasid, we would have a model of what one of the highest forms of conversation could be....
(3) Samuel Dresner, The Zaddik
(Abelard Schuman, 1960) 24.
the translation of Arthur Green, Tormented Master, A Life of Rabbi Nahman of Bratslav, (Alabama: The University of Alabama Press, 1979), 200-201; see also his The Zaddik
as Axis Mundi in Later Judaism, Journal of American Academy of Religion, vol.
This is termed the "descent in behalf of the ascent." Moreover, the Zaddik
is one who puts things in their proper place, thereby restoring a notion of cosmic order that enables humanity to live in spite of apparent injustice or disorder.
She examines the years 5500 to 5541 (1740-81 AD) to reveal such issues as who the first Hasidic zaddik
was, when the first Hasidic court was established, who its members were, and what aspects of their beliefs and activities generated opposition forceful enough to crystallize their opponents as an enduring stream within Jewish society since the end of the 18th century.
One, for example, concludes that "'The righteous man shall live in his faith' (Habakkuk 2:4), can be interpreted, 'Through his faith in the zaddik
a man will live.'"
(17) Hasidic Jews speak of a zaddik
, for example, as a righteous man who embodies the Torah but who also partially bears the sins of his generation.