Several cases of ototoxicity have been reported in HIV infected patients treated with zalcitabine
(Martinez and French, 1993); didanosine (Colebunders, Dipraetere, Van Wanzeele, and Van Gehuchten, 1998); zidovudine and didanosine (Christensen et al, 1998); stavudine, lamivudine, didanosine and hydroxyurea (Simdon et al, 2001); and post exposure prophylaxis with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (Rey et al, 2002).
Peripheral neuropathy is mainly seen with stavudine, didanosine, and zalcitabine
.  These inhibit nerve growth factor and result in neuropathy 1.3-22.3% of prevalence has been documented.
Combination and monotherapy with zidovudine and zalcitabine
in patients with advanced HIV disease.
LHON following the introduction of the strongly mitochondrial toxic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) zidovudine, stavudine and zalcitabine
(ddC) has previously been reported in patients with the mitochondrial mutations 11778G>A and 14484T>C.
Stavudine is the first four approved for marketing the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections following zidovudine, hydroxy glycosides, and go after zalcitabine
by the U.S.
(37) is another useful drug and is given in combination with Zidovudine .
NRTIs include lamivudine (Epivir), Combivir (AZT/3TC) and Hivid (Zalcitabine
This analysis also assessed the impact of five individual nucleoside antiretrovirals on development of cardiomyopathy--Retrovir (zidovudine), Videx (didanosine), Zerit (stavudine), Ziagen (abacavir), and Hivid (zalcitabine
) (Hivid is no longer used).
The drugs documented to most often be associated with pill esophagitis in HIV are zidovudine (azidothymidine), zalcitabine
, and doxycycline.
([dagger]) Patient was receiving monotherapy with zalcitabine
. ([double dagger]) Patient was receiving dual therapy with stavudine and ritonavir.
Damage to the parts of the nervous system that carry information throughout the body (i.e., peripheral neuropathy) is another complication of chronic alcohol abuse and, given their neuropathic side effects, limits the use of the NRTIs zalcitabine
and stavudine in alcoholics (Moyle and Sadler 1998).
(48-50) Similar presentations can occur with other nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors, such as didanosine, lamivudine, and zalcitabine
. (51-53) In reverse transcriptase inhibitor myopathy, serum CK levels are usually normal or only slightly elevated.