A comparative study of tentacle regeneration and number in symbiotic and aposymbiotic Hydra viridis: effect of zoochlorellae
The plasmodium of the Myxomycetes is so sweet: the eyeless Prorhynchus has the dull color of the born-blind, and its proboscis stuffed with zoochlorellae
solicits the oxygen of the Frontoniella antypyretica: he carries his pharynx in a rosette, a locomotive requirement, horned, stupid, and not at all calcareous ...
The temperate intertidal anemone Anthopleura elegantis-sima Brandt, 1835 hosts both dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium) and chlorophytes (zoochlorellae; Elliptochloris marina [Letsch et al., 2009]) at levels that vary predictably over both local differences in microhabitat and regional gradients of light, temperature, tidal height, and latitude (Secord and Augustine, 2000; Secord and Muller-Parker, 2005).
Alternatively, heterogeneously distributed or temporally variable intra-host variation in symbiont populations--previously reported for Symbiodinium in tropical corals (Rowan et al, 1997; van Oppen et al, 2001; Ulstrup and Van Oppen, 2003) and anemones (Venn et al, 2008), and for populations of zoochlorellae and zooxanthellae in An-thopleura (Secord and Augustine, 2000)--may have systematically biased our samples, which were taken exclusively from tentacles in spring and summer.
The two anemones host both green algae (zoochlorellae
: ZC) and brown dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae: ZX), which allows for baseline comparisons in distributions of the two symbionts.
Dinoflagellate symbionts are commonly called zooxanthellae, and symbiotic green algae are called zoochlorellae
muscatinei; LaJeunesse and Trench, 2000) and green algae (zoochlorellae
, Chlorellalike green cells in the phylum Chlorophyta; Muscatine, 1971; O'Brien and Wyttenbach, 1980) are photosynthetic symbionts of these clonal anemones.
elegantissima of several types: specimens having predominately zooxanthellae (dinoflagellates comprising at least two species) or zoochlorellae
as symbionts; those containing algal endosymbionts of both kinds, and naturally occurring aposymbiotic specimens that lack the endosymbionts typically found in most specimens.
In addition, a study of the temperate sea anemone Anthopteura etegantissima demonstrated that high temperature (20[degrees]C) decreased zoochlorellae
density and had little effect on zooxanthellae (Saunders and Muller-Parker, 1997).
Heterotrophic bacteria, autotrophic cyanobacteria, zoochlorellae
, and zooxanthellae are common symbionts in Porifera, where they may actually constitute most of the sponge tissue.
divide synchronously within the host cell following host feeding (McAuley, 1982, 1985, 1986); mitosis of digestive cells and their symbiotic algae increases about 12 h after feeding (McAuley, 1982).
The intertidal sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima contains two symbiotic algae, zoochlorellae
and zooxanthellae, in the Northern Puget Sound region.