Plant dispersal systems in Neotropical forests: availability of dispersal agents or availability of resources for constructing zoochorous
Diaspores were classified according to Van der Pijl (1982) as anemochorous (winged or plumed diaspores), zoochorous
(scattered by animals), or autochorous (dispersed by explosion or gravity).
In many zoochorous
pollination systems, the benefit of broader pollen dispersal via visitation by more individual pollinators must be weighed against the potential opportunity cost of incomplete pollen removal.
Following Van der Pijl (1982), the syndromes were classified into three groups: (a) zoochorous
, when diaspores are dispersed by animals; for example, those with sweet flesh, and seeds with arils; species dispersed by insects, vertebrates and man are included in this group; (b) anemochorous, when the diaspores are adapted to wind dispersal, featuring structures such as feathers and wings; (c) autochorous, when the plants have their own dispersion mechanisms: seeds are either launched on the surrounding areas by any particular mechanism or they are simply released by the plant directly on the ground, or barochoric (gravity) which comprise species with explosive dispersal or dispersal by gravity.
jamacaru demonstrates annual flowering and fruiting related to seasonal rainfall, with a zoochorous
dispersal syndrome (Quirino, 2006; Leal et al., 2007).
In the last stage of succession, wind-dispersed species were replaced by zoochorous
species (Figure 4(a)).
In tropical dry forest an important proportion of the tree flora is anemochorous (wind-dispersed), and their seeds can reach pastures much more easily than those of zoochorous
(animal dispersed) tree species.
These variables are clonality (yes, no), pollination model (wind, insects, water), dispersal syndrome (anemochorous, hydrochorous, zoochorous
and others that include barochorous, balistochorous, etc.), linking to moist soils (yes, no), seed size (very small if < 1 mm, small between 1-3 mm, medium between 3-5 mm, large between 5-10 mm and very large if > 10 mm), linking to disturbed habitats (yes, no), salinity tolerance (yes, no) and longevity (annual, perennial).
Available information from several Neotropical regions indicate that during the dry season the number of species with anemochorous or autochorous diaspores is higher, while species with zoochorous
diaspores seem to produce them most often in the rainy season (Morellato et al., 1990; Ibarra-Manriquez et al., 1991, 2001; Batalha and Mantovani, 2000; Batalha and Martins, 2004).
Dwarf bamboos affect the regeneration of zoochorous
trees by providing habitats to acorn-feeding rodents.
It occurs mainly in Cerrado vegetation, especially in the Chapada do Araripe region, and has primary barochoric and secondary zoochorous
The second PCA axis explained 19.33% of data variation and was associated with nontussock hemicriptophytes and zoochorous
(FG2) and therophytes I (FG6), dictating the ordering of transects T1 (2007), T2 (2007, 2009, and 2011) and T12 (2011).