Seed dispersal by animals (zoochory
) is an important interaction that have a fundamental role in the life cycle of plants, influencing their biology, ecology, genetics and evolution (Herrera, 2002; Correa, Winemiller, Lopez-Fernandez, & Galetti, 2007; Pollux, 2011) and contribute to the biological and functional diversity of plant communities (Aslan, Zavaleta, Tershy, & Croll, 2013), especially in those dominated by animal-mediated dispersal (Schupp, Jordano, & Gomez, 2010).
is a form of dispersal primarily studied in forage species with respect to its importance in natural re-sowing in the renovation and persistence of species used as pasture (FISCHER et al., 1996).
Even allowing for zoochory
(animal transport of germplasm, including humans) the distributions of C.
tuberosa seeds occurs exclusively through zoochory
. Seeds are carried by native animals, such as gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira F.), black-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha W.), collared peccary (Pecan tajacu L.), fox (Dusicyon thous L.), yellow armadillo (Euphractus sexcinctus L.), argentine black and white tegu (Tupinambis merianae L.), greater rhea (Rhea americana L.) and white-naped jay (Cyanocorax cyanopogon Wied) (Barreto and Castro, 2010; Cavalcanti et al., 2009a; Cavalcanti and Resende, 2003; Azevedo et al., 2013).
(FV) life form: (A) tree, (L) climbers and (H) herbaceous; (CS) successional category: (P) pioneer, (Si) early secondary, (St) late secondary and (C) climax; (SD) dispersion syndrome: (Ane) anemochory, (Aut) autochory, (Zoo) zoochory
and (SC) unrated.
Ramana, "Floral biology, psychophily, anemochory and zoochory
in Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and the Robins (Asteraceae)," Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, vol.
Since the first studies it has been observed that anemochoric species predominate in dry forests, while in humid forests zoochory
is more important (HOWE; SMALLWOOD, 1982; GENTRY, 1983).
Biologically, transport by birds or other animals (zoochory
), humans (anthropochory) (Barber 2009) or the host itself (phoresy) (Strand 1986; Austin et al.
Because seed mass is believed to be shaped as a size-number compromise [60, 61], according to life form, it could be concluded that early wind-dispersed pioneers (short-lived forbs) often produce lots of smaller seeds, which is in contrast to perennial graminoid relying on zoochory
in late successional stage (Table 4).
Angiosperms have evolved a multitude of external dispersal adaptations, including wind (anemochory), water (hydrochory), animal (zoochory
), and self-dispersal (autochory; Fenner, 1985).
1992), seeds could be spread by any of numerous ways (e.g., hydrochory, zoochory
, etc.) further increasing the distribution of the species in Mississippi.
Ridley (1930) recognized anemochory (dispersal by wind), hydroehory (dispersal by water) and zoochory
(dispersal by animals) as the three primary dispersal syndromes.