flowers produce attractants and rewards to ensure repeated pollinator visitation.
This assumption is supported by the fact that zoophilous
plants rely on pollinators for reproduction and flowers are the structures designed to this purpose.
The previously recommended method of partial treatment of animals in a herd turned out unacceptable, since such treatment had little effect on reducing the number of imago zoophilous
flies in the nature .
In Russia it is known as a zoophilous
pasture and desert fly (Sychevskaya 1977; Veselkin 1984).
I submerged the zoophilous
chapter of my life in the amnesia of a drunken binge that lasted nearly a year, if you add up all the drinks I imbibed, the scenes I caused, the hangovers, the vague and traumatic sexual episodes with women each more despicable than the one before, the fears, the blaming, the police stations, the loss of jobs and getting drunk all over again to erase the mishaps that were multiplying.
The second group of herbaceous species differs from the first group in some attributes: zoophilous
pollination, floral type, and many seeded per fruit, but also share some attributes with the first group: high reproductive efficiency and granivourous or wind dispersal.
Now I leave the reader, perhaps in need of mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, with the final entry: "zoophilous
to ZZZ" .
flowers long range gene flow is probably largely through pollen transfer by flower visitors (Levin et al.
flowers, heterostyly, protogyny, dicliny, dioecy and
These results suggest that pollen load effects can certainly be important in noncultivated plants, especially when one considers the variation in pollen deposition rates in natural populations (Snow, 1986; Galen and Newport, 1988; Levin, 1990), and the high frequency of pollen carryover which results in multidonor pollen loads in zoophilous
plants (e.g., Schaal, 1980; Handel, 1982; Waser and Price, 1984; Ellstrand and Marshall, 1986).
Despite the existence of these alternative mechanisms for IA, there is one group of dioecious plants whose ancestors appear to lack alternative outbreeding devices: the majority of dioecious and gynodioecious zoophilous
(animal-pollinated) species do not have self-incompatible ancestors (Baker, 1959), nor do such species exhibit dichogamy (Cruden, 1988), i.e., they evolved from species that lacked alternative outbreeding devices.
Flowers actinomorphic or very rarely zygomorphic (Dorothea); bisexual or rarely unisexual; nearly always epigynous; often heterostylic (Cinchona): pollination zoophilous
(mainly entomophilous, especially Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera) or rarely anemophilous (Theligonum).