Effects of irradiance and ultraviolet radiation on photoadaptation in zooxanthellae
of Aiptasia pallida: Primary production, photoinhibition, and enzymic defenses against oxygen toxicity.
The new research study, led by scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego, suggests that by improving overall ocean health, corals are better able to recover from bleaching events, which occur when rising sea temperatures force corals to expel their symbiotic algae, known as zooxanthellae
Coral are a combination of plant and animal, tiny polyps that build shells around their bodies, no more than a millimeter to several centimeters in size, and zooxanthellae
, a microscopic form of algae that live in the polyp's tissue, providing its intense colors.
But widespread `coral bleaching' caused by the death of zooxanthellae
, symbiotic algae that feed the coral, has afflicted the reefs.
Aiptasia feeds by capturing small organisms such as zooplankton and invertebrate larvae from the water column and, when in photically appropriate environments, via photosynthesis of symbiotic zooxanthellae
(Ruppert and Fox 1988).
Similar to other coral species, Heliopora coerulea interacts with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium, commonly called zooxanthellae
(symbiont) (Pochon and Gates, 2010).
Corals rely on partnerships with tiny, single-celled algae called zooxanthellae
. The corals provide the algae a home, and, in turn, the algae provide nourishment, forming a symbiotic relationship.
Spawning, development and acquisition of zooxanthellae
by Tridacna squamosa (Mollusca, Bivalvia).
Giant clams, however, are both auto- and heterotrophic, and that despite these lower rates, they achieve large sizes by supplementing suspension feeding by translocation of photosynthates from symbiotic zooxanthellae
They need it to power the millions of microscopic algae, called zooxanthellae
, that live in their translucent tissues.
On the feeding reactions and digestion in the coral polyp Astrangia danae with notes on its symbiosis with zooxanthellae
Researchers at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) have reported isolating the bacteria that cause YBD: a group of four new Vibrio species, which combine with existing Vibrio on the coral to attack the zooxanthellae
, which are the photosynthetic symbionts of corals.