The pyramidal epithelial cells have a truncated apical vertex and a nucleus surrounded by condensed chromatin, shifted basally, in addition to a large number of secretory granules full of zymogens
Animals, plants and microorganisms produce protease and have an important role in numerous physiological as well as pathological processes like catabolism of protein, cell growth and migration, blood clotting, estimates of tissue morphogenesis in development, tumor growth and metastasis, inflammation, hormone production, activation of zymogens
, and the pharmacologically active peptides from the precursor protein, and that protein transport across the membrane (Sawant & Nagendran., 2014; Souza et al.
(2015); these former authors show that once the exogenous feed starts, the size of the pancreas and zymogens
increase, being these the precursors of the trypsin and chymotrypsin activity (Civera-Cerecedo et al., 2004).
This can lead to a reflux of intestinal content into pancreatic and biliary ducts that subsequently activates pancreatic zymogens
. This concept is referred to as reflux pancreatitis, and in the referenced study, it did not carry increased mortality or risk of pancreatic necrosis.
MMPs are secreted as inactive proenzymes or zymogens
, which are activated by the cleavage of the prodomain .
They are synthesised and secreted in the form of inactive zymogens
(proenzymes) by most of cells in the human body .
Few theories exist regarding distribution of [sup.11]C-acetate, for example, its high concentration in pancreas which may correspond with increased lipid synthesis in acinar cells , incorporating into zymogens
or generating hydrogen carbonate ions .
Bach1b contains both BTB and BZIP domains and mediates the regulatory role of heme in transcription of the zymogens
in zebrafish [17, 18].
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a complex pathological process, depending on autodigestion caused by premature activation of zymogens
. Most cases of AP are mild, with recovery period within 5-7 days by conservative treatment.
Extracellular protease activity, demonstrated by secreted and membrane-bound protease forms, is very composed and leads to the activation of other proteases (i.e., proteolysis of nonactive zymogens
), decomposition of cell-cell junctions, release of sequestered growth factors (TGF-[beta] and VEGF), activation of signal proteins and receptors, degradation of inflammatory inhibitors or inflammation-related proteins, and changes in cell mechanosensing and motility.
Smoking can also elevate the level of pancreatic zymogens
in the blood stream after secretin stimulation .
This hydrolytic activity is given by a family of enzymes and zymogens
present in the cell, called widely 'proteases', with the purpose to hydrolyze the peptide bond [7,21].