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The scientific study of fermentation.

zy′mo·log′ic (-mə-lŏj′ĭk), zy′mo·log′i·cal (-ĭ-kəl) adj.
zy·mol′o·gist n.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
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Though it was quite a few millennia before the fermentation process was truly understood (an explanation officially came in 1897 from German scientist and zymologist Eduard Buchner, who received a Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work in the field), the ancients' dabble in micro-organisms was mankind's introduction to biotechnology, one of the oldest forms of science on the planet.